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Title 6

The Mosaic Age

Lesson Three Of Six

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The Mosaic Age


This lesson traces the history of Israel from the exodus out of Egypt until the return of Judah from Babylonian captivity.


God Calls Moses

For forty years Moses lived in Midian. One day, while tending to his flocks, God called to Moses from a burning bush and told him to go to Pharaoh and demand the release of His people, Israel (Exodus 2:11-4:17).


The Ten Plagues

Moses and Aaron went to Pharaoh and demanded that he release Israel. Pharaoh refused. Therefore, God brought nine plagues upon Egypt but Pharaoh still refused to let Israel go (Exodus 5:1-10:29).


The Death Of The Firstborn

God would send one more plague, the death of the firstborn, which would affect every household (Exodus 11:4-5). However, Israel's firstborn would be spared by following Moses' instructions (Exodus 12:1-13). Then the Lord struck all the firstborn in Egypt (Exodus 12:29-30).


The Giving Of The Law

Following the death of all their firstborn, the Egyptians finally let Israel go. They left Egypt under the leadership of Moses (Exodus 12:31-13:18). When they reached Mount Sinai, God called Moses up into the mountain where he received the Law of God for Israel. The Ten Commandments were the basis for all other laws, covering every aspect of personal, religious and civil life (Exodus 19-25).


Israel Enters Canaan


Entering The Promised Land

From Sinai the Israelites came to the borders of Canaan. After spying out the land, Joshua (Moses passed the leadership to Joshua just before his death) led Israel across the Jordan river and, by the Lord's might, took the city of Jericho (Joshua 1-6).


The Conquest Of Canaan

Following the defeat of Jericho, Israel went on to conquer all the southern (Joshua 7-10) and northern (Joshua 11:1-12:24) parts of Canaan. However, there was still much land to be conquered. This would be left to Israel's future king, David.


The Time Of The Judges


Israel's Disobedience

The pagan nations, that Israel had not driven out, soon proved to be a snare to Israel: they intermarried with them, and embraced their religions. Because of this spiritual adultery, God allowed the surrounding nations to oppress them. Israel would then repent and cry out to God for deliverance. The Lord responded and raised up a judge (a military leader) to deliver them. This cycle was repeated many times (Judges 1-21).



The Time Of The Kings


Samuel Established As A Prophet

Samuel was the last judge of Israel; he was also a priest and prophet (1 Samuel 3). Samuel brought religious reform in the land and delivered Israel from the oppression of the Philistines (1 Samuel 7).


Israel Demands A King

When Samuel had grown old, the elders of Israel came to him and demanded that he appoint a king over them. The Lord told Samuel to do as they had requested. So, according to God's choice, Samuel anointed Saul as Israel's first king (1 Samuel 8:1-10:27). Samuel also anointed Israel's second king, David (2 Samuel 2:1-5:5).


God's Covenant With David

As David contemplated building a more permanent structure in which to place the Ark of God, the Lord said to David, "When your days are fulfilled and you rest with your fathers, I will set up your seed after you, who will come from your body, and I will establish His kingdom. He shall build a house for My name, and I will establish the throne of His kingdom forever" (2 Samuel 7:12- 13). Some aspects of this prophecy were fulfilled in David's son, Solomon. However, there was yet a greater fulfillment to be seen in Jesus (Acts 13:23; Luke 1:32; Zechariah 6:12-13; 1 Peter 2:5; Hebrews 1:5).


The Divided Kingdom

Solomon, David's son, was Israel's next king. At the beginning of his reign he was a good king. However, during the latter years of his reign, he was unfaithful to the Lord (1 Kings 1:1-11:10). Therefore, the Lord told him that the kingdom would be divided (1 Kings 11:11-13). This was fulfilled shortly after his death (1 Kings 11:41 - 14:21).


Spiritual Decline

For about 300 years we see a succession of kings ruling in both Israel and Judah. On the whole both kingdoms fell into spiritual decline (1 Kings 13:1- 10; 14:1-16; 16:1-14; 17:1-19:21; 21:17-29).


Israel And Judah Go Into Captivity

Because of Israel and Judah's spiritual decline (2 Kings 17:7-23), the Lord allowed them to be taken into captivity. The Assyrians took Israel captive, from which they never returned (2 Kings 17-18), and Judah was taken into captivity by the Babylonians (2 Kings 18-25).


Judah Returns From Captivity

After 70 years in captivity, Judah returned home in three stages: the first group was led home by Zerubbabel (Ezra 1- 6). The second group was led home by Ezra (Ezra 7-10). The third group was led back by Nehemiah (Nehemiah 1-13).



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1. What was Moses' mission given to him by God?



2. What instructions did Moses give to Israel allowing them to escape the tenth plague?



3. What significant event happened at Mt. Sinai?



4. To whom was the Law given? (Deut. 5:1-3).



5. What was the name of the first city conquered by Israel?



6. How was Israel governed after Joshua's death?



7. In what way were the pagan nations a snare to Israel?



8. What promises to Abraham (Genesis 12:1-3) have now been fulfilled at this point? (Joshua 21:43).



9. Who were Israel's first two kings?



10. The covenant God made with David had some fulfillment in David's son, Solomon, but there was also a future fulfillment to be seen in Jesus. What New Testament writers confirm this?



11. Why did the kingdom of Israel become divided? (1 Kings 11:9-13; 11:26-12:20).



12. Which Kingdom went into captivity first?



13. What nation took Judah into captivity?



14. Which kingdom never returned from captivity?



15. What three men led Judah home after 70 years in captivity?



We look forward to receiving your answers.